But there is another way to make large-area electronics that holds great promise, not just for e-skin research but for the semiconductor industry in general. By using inkjet and other printing processes, manufacturers can significantly reduce production costs. For example, inkjet technology can deliver the exact amount of any substance you want applied to precisely targeted positions, which reduces the waste of raw material. Printing processes can simultaneously apply the coating and the circuitry pattern of thin-film materials, which are usually performed as separate steps when semiconductors are manufactured via lithography. Compared with vacuum-deposition methods, which use a huge amount of electricity to pump the air out of a big stainless-steel chamber, printing processes use minimal power.